International forskning

Prebiotics Plus Probiotics May Favorably Impact on Gut Permeability, Endocannabinoid Receptors, and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients with Coronary Artery Diseases: A Clinical Trial

Min Liu, Arash Tandorost, Jalall Moludi, Priyankar Dey

1Department of General Medicine, The First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China

2Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3Department of Biotechnology, The Institute of Engineering & Technology, Patiala, India


While gut-to-systemic translocation of pyrogenic endotoxin due to a leaky gut elicits systemic inflammation, at the intestine, the endocannabinoid system (eCB) also plays a major role in modulating the impact of gut dysbiosis on the host system. Therefore, we hypothesized that coadministration of prebiotic inulin with probiotics would improve the eCB system, gut microbial composition, and inflammatory parameters associated with coronary artery diseases (CAD). We designed a randomized, double-blind trial with 92 CAD patients. Patients were randomly allocated to receive inulin (15 mg/day), LGG capsules 1.9 × 109 colony-forming unit (CFU) or inulin plus probiotic (synbiotics) supplements, for a duration of 60 days. We assessed gut microbiota composition, expression of cannabinoid receptors (i.e., CB1 and CB2), serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) before and after the supplementation. Probiotic-inulin cosupplementation significantly decreased IL6, LPS, and TLR-4 and increased serum TAC concentrations compared with the placebo. While CB1 receptor expression had no difference, significant differences were observed for the CB2 receptor expression among the four treatments. CB2 receptor mRNA expression significantly (p < .05) correlated with serum levels of LPS (r = −.10) and F/B ratio (r = −.407, p = .047). Our data collectively provide preliminary evidence that gut microbiota determines gut permeability through the LPS–eCB system. We also have found that synbiotics improved the eCB receptors, and inflammatory biomarkers more than either of the two supplementations given alone.