International forskning

Seizure-free days as a novel outcome in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Post hoc analysis of patients receiving cannabidiol in two randomized controlled trials

Stéphane Auvin 1 2 3, Charlotte Nortvedt 4, Douglas S Fuller 5, Farhad Sahebkar 5

  • 1Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Service de Neurologie Pédiatrique, EpiCARE European Reference Network (ERN) membre, Hôpital Robert Debré, Paris, France.
  • 2Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM) NeuroDiderot, Université Paris-Cité, Paris, France.
  • 3Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), Paris, France.
  • 4Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc., London, UK.
  • 5Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Palo Alto, California, USA.


Objective: In this post hoc analysis, we aimed to assess seizure-free days as a potential new outcome measure to use in randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS).

Methods: In two phase 3 RCTs (GWPCARE3, GWPCARE4), eligible patients were randomized to receive plant-derived highly purified cannabidiol (CBD; Epidiolex® in the USA; 100 mg/mL oral solution) at 10 mg/kg/day (CBD10; GWPCARE3 only), at 20 mg/kg/day (CBD20), or matched placebo. The treatment period comprised a 2-week dose titration and a 12-week maintenance period. This post hoc analysis evaluated the least-squares (LS) mean changes from baseline and difference versus placebo in the number of drop or total seizure-free days per 28 days during the treatment period or maintenance period alone. LS mean changes were estimated using an analysis of covariance model, with categorical age and baseline number of drop or total seizure-free days as covariates, and treatment group as a fixed factor.

Results: A total of 396 patients were included in this post hoc analysis. During the 14-week treatment period, LS mean changes from baseline in number of drop seizure-free days per 28 days for patients receiving placebo (n = 161), CBD10 (n = 73), and CBD20 (n = 162) were 2.81 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.75-3.88), 5.64 (95% CI = 4.08-7.20), and 6.45 (95% CI = 5.39-7.52), respectively. The LS mean differences in number of drop seizure-free days versus placebo were 2.83 (95% CI = .98-4.68) for CBD10 and 3.64 (95% CI = 2.18-5.10) for CBD20. For total seizure-free days, LS mean differences versus placebo were 2.63 (95% CI = .92-4.34) for CBD10 and 3.50 (95% CI = 2.16-4.85) for CBD20. The improvements from baseline in seizure-free days during the maintenance period alone were similar to the entire treatment period.

Significance: Drop and total seizure-free days represent potential new and clinically meaningful endpoints for future RCTs in patients with LGS.